Dr Marc Geddes

Fragments of Thought

Dilemmas of Accountability: will the Brexit committee succeed?

Please note that this blog originally appeared on the Political Studies Association’s blog on 30 March, and is available here.

On Tuesday, 28 March, a private committee meeting of the Brexit select committee didn’t go exactly to plan: it’s been reported that a number of MPs walked out of the meeting. The reason, according to media sources, is that a draft report proposed by Hilary Benn, the committee chair, was ‘too gloomy’ and not worthy of further consideration. The UK select committee system prides itself on the unanimity of its reports and the ability of MPs to proceed through consensus. This seems to be stretched to the limits in the case of the Brexit committee, a committee which faces huge obstacles not only in terms of its policy focus, but also in its routine, day-to-day running. So we might see instances of vocal discontent happening more often, which is an ominous sign for parliamentary scrutiny of Brexit.

We can explain the walkout for a range of different reasons. First, we can look to the diversity of MPs’ interpretations of their scrutiny role. Typically, committees are made up of MPs that have a deep interest in a policy issue; in other words, they are specialists and policy advocates. Many will have deeply-held political views and some will go so deep that they will pursue those interests at all costs and irrespective of their party’s position on the matter. Other committee members will have different reasons for joining, such as supporting their constituency or to learn about a particular policy issue. The approach taken by committee members means that scrutiny is pushed and pulled in divergent directions. For the Brexit committee, these divergent policy priorities are a formidable challenge. An ordinary committee would have 11 MPs; the Brexit committee has 21. So that’s 21 different interpretations of scrutiny that can range from pro-Brexit optimists to anti-Brexit pessimists. As Hannah White has previously pointed out, this makes it difficult for the committee to speak as one, let alone speak as one in an effective way.

Can these diverse interpretations of scrutiny be reconciled? That is the task that falls to the chair of a committee, who will not only have to bring all these different interpretations of scrutiny together, but also lead inquiries, ensure committee members work together and represent their committee in the media and elsewhere. In general, chairs have two choices about their leadership role: either they act as a catalyst, i.e. committee-orientated facilitators for their committee members, or they act as a chieftain, i.e. leadership-orientated and likely to promote their strategic priorities within and beyond the committee. The chair of the Brexit committee, Hilary Benn, is generally respected across both sides of the House of Commons. However, he also voted to for the UK to remain in the European Union, which means that Brexiteers (almost half the committee) regard him with at least some suspicion. This should not be a problem, however, given that several committees in Parliament are chaired by Labour or SNP MPs.  The Public Accounts Committee, for instance, has always had a chairing MP from the HM Opposition.

Benn’s leadership style in public evidence sessions has been consensual, i.e. giving committee members ownership over questions, without intervening too much or contradicting members. In private, his approach cannot be known. However, it seems that those walking out of the committee meeting largely blame him for what has happened: it was a draft report drawn up by clerks and the chair (nothing unusual here – all draft reports are done in this way), in which Benn has, according to some members, not consulted members for their views, sought to build consensus among all sides, nor given advance notice of the 155-page draft report to be discussed and published in the coming days. If true (and no one has disputed this so far), it does suggest Benn is adopting elements of a committee chieftain that – given the high-profile nature of this policy issue – is unlikely to be successful.

Other committee chieftains (think of Keith Vaz, Margaret Hodge or Bernard Jenkin) have been able to get unanimous reports in the past. Chairs with clear priorities often construct consensus through horse trading or compromise, whether with respect to a particular recommendation, a report, or between whole inquiries. This type of leadership is particularly difficult in this instance, however, because the committee is considering the most important policy priority of the UK and one that will define British history for centuries (regardless of whether we think of it as independence day or catastrophe). As such, the committee will be in the limelight and MPs of all colours will be under pressure to stick to their pre-conceived ideas about Brexit. Given also the high-profile members on the committee, including Michael Gove and John Wittingdale, the stakes are high. This suggests that it will be particularly difficult for Benn to impose his view or to operate without building consensus as an inquiry unfolds.

Consensual reports are the prize for any committee because it suggests cross-party appeal that government cannot easily brush aside. This raises the question: can the Brexit committee become an effective vehicle for parliamentary scrutiny of Brexit? Almost every social scientist will answer with: it depends. We can point to three factors. First, it depends on the focus of inquiry. Most committees are unable to unanimously agree on reports if they are based on the underlying, grand principles of policy (especially not flagship policy); instead, committees build consensus around implementation issues, overlooked topics, or issues where the government does not have a strongly-held view (or manifesto commitment). The biggest challenge here is that we do not seem to know what the principles of Brexit are, never mind the policy outcomes. We do know, however, that it is a defining issue in British (and European) history. This implies that the committee is left at only looking at implementation of Brexit, which could mean, especially for Remain-supporting MPs, that the committee capitulates on more hard-hitting scrutiny. Second, effective scrutiny depends on the working relationships between committee members and the chair. This takes time, and the Brexit committee was only recently established. Further, the committee is also much larger, with members that have diametrically opposing views, and it is considering high-profile policy. Building consensus in this environment is not easy, and it again raises the question around what all members can coalesce around in the first place.

A final factor that the committee must consider goes to the heart of the parliamentary process: what is the committee trying to achieve? The referendum presents a nightmare scenario for many MPs because popular sovereignty has been invoked, crashing against the principle of parliamentary sovereignty on which the UK constitution is ostensibly built. So, does scrutiny mean clarity and transparency to the Brexit process as envisioned by government? Or does it mean blocking, limiting and amending Brexit? If it’s all about transparency, then the focus will turn primarily to its committee hearings, especially in holding ministers to account. The pressure to agree on evidence (which, unfortunately for the Brexiteers, is gloomy) and to write a consensual report becomes a non-issue. However, if the committee chooses this route, it would also abdicate a policy-influencing role. And this opens wider, possibly uncomfortable, questions for Parliament: does it have the capacity and the will to scrutinise Brexit? Given the approach taken by MPs over triggering Article 50 and the utter failure of HM Opposition to do anything substantive so far, big questions remain over what Parliament can and will do to influence a defining moment in British and European history.


‘Rubbing shoulders’: an understanding of networks, relationships and everyday practices is key to parliamentary engagement

Please note that this blog was originally published on the LSE Impact Blog on 16 January 2017 (here), and is co-authered with Kate Dommett (Sheffield) and Brenton Prosser (Nous Group).

Everyday actions and practices in the House of Commons have an important impact on the work of MPs and parliamentary staff. Keeping in touch, building connections – ‘rubbing shoulders’ – with colleagues is an important way in which working relationships remain positive and how organisational processes tick on. Sociologists and anthropologists have known this for a long time; political scientists are only just grasping its value to better understand the Westminster village. Understanding such dynamics will be crucial not only to better comprehend how Parliament works, but also for how academics can engage with Parliament as part of disseminating their research, something that has become more important in academia.

In a recent research project, we explored where and how academics can engage with Parliament. We did so by holding a workshop with practitioners from different parts of the UK Parliament and engaging them in discussion, debate and activities designed to gauge their involvement with academic research and how they used it in parliamentary settings. Most importantly, we found that Parliament is not a single, unified institution that allows for simple engagement. We looked at three sites in particular: the Parliamentary Office for Science and Technology, parliamentary libraries, and select committees. We found that each arena relies on academic research in slightly different ways, produces different sorts of documents, and has slightly different audiences (see Table 1).

Research needs to be written with the right parliamentary audience in mind; each has its own nuances. A bigger point, then, is that academics need to understand different knowledge requirements of Parliament, but also show an awareness of the knowledge practices of parliamentary actors. This is understudied, but there is an important pointer: the importance of ‘rubbing shoulders’. Literally, recent changes to the use of space in Parliament (a big issue for the future) have affected the way that staff work:

“We used to be [in] different parts of the [parliamentary] estate, and now we’re in one building. And that makes a big difference; you’re talking about something and you can go, ‘do you know how to get hold of…?’ and that’s so much easier than picking up a phone and calling somebody.” [HC committee clerk 01]

What this implies is that staff are embedded in networks and seek advice from one another. This brings us back to the opening of this post: relationships and networks have a big impact on parliamentary engagement. Being known within a parliamentary network is important because you will become a ‘go-to’ person for advice. It also creates links with other members of staff; you will be recommended to others. Members of staff within Parliament are “internally facing” [HC committee clerk 02]: in the first instance, they will ask each other for recommendations about who they should contact, who they know, what they need. This is ‘rubbing shoulders’ between parliamentary staff and academics in a wider sense. It builds shared understandings and personal trust which can circumvent common barriers around accessibility of research. This can happen in many ways:

  • Submitting written evidence will put you on a clerk’s radar. One clerk noted: “it might be that what they’re saying on this particular inquiry isn’t much use, but in a year’s time or two years’ time we come back to a similar subject, we know they’re there” [HC committee clerk 03; emphasis added].
  • Academics can be crucial in informal briefing sessions to set the agenda. One member of staff recounted: “the inquiry went as it was presented from this academic. So they were kind of instrumental in changing the terms of reference … but there was no formal recognition” [POST staff 01].
  • One librarian said that blogs “have been an absolute god-send” and “revolutionsed [her] working life” because these allowed her direct access to research in a quick and timely manner. Blogs can be especially useful because staff are looking for “straightforward language, very uncomplicated, very little jargon” [HC Librarian 01].
  • Inviting practitioners to academic events is crucial for knowledge exchange and building connections: “we try to get out to seminars and talks and fewer conferences these days. That’s where we do a lot of making connections, working out who’s doing what and who’s going to be useful” [HC Librarian 01].

What does this tell us? First, that translating research into accessible writing is important. Second, that engagement through participation in practitioner networks is crucial to be on the radar for inquiries, briefing support, and so on. But third, that the best way to increase the likelihood of parliamentary impact is by understanding demands on Parliament through, for example, co-producing research. Social and political life is relational, something many of us have accepted implicitly but not often studied explicitly. Indeed, given their quotidian or ordinary nature, we have often taken everyday practices for granted. And yet, they are pivotal for understanding parliamentary politics – and especially so for academics wishing to engage with the UK Parliament. This means that, if you want to get involved with Parliament, you need to proactively push yourself into its networks.

Of course, it is not problem-free to be part of these networks at such close range. Sceptics will ask if it is possible for scholars to both engage and work with Parliament while simultaneously evaluating the work of Parliament. In other words, will academics lose sight of critical analysis if they have a stake in a parliamentary report? More widely, does the persistence of rubbing shoulders in policymaking create a problem of the ‘usual suspects’? There are ways in which academics can guard against the former (e.g. ethnographers who use participant observation in their research have long-established ways to prevent ‘going native’, including involvement in alternative professional networks or insisting on peer review for their contributions), but the latter presents a question that deserves wider attention. However, and despite these two dilemmas, the primacy of networks – of ‘rubbing shoulders’ – remains fundamental to understanding how academics can engage with Parliament. Indeed, while rubbing shoulders may reproduce the usual suspects, this is only the case if academics do not make proactive attempts to get involved in parliamentary networks; engaging with Parliament could ensure that the ‘usual suspects’ become something of the past.

This blog is based on a research project at the Sir Bernard Crick Centre for the Public Understanding of Politics, University of Sheffield, to explore the relationship between academia and Parliament. Full findings of this research are currently under review at an academic journal. More information can also be found in the Sheffield Solutions Policy Briefing: A Recipe for Parliamentary Impact? An academic guide to effective engagement.  Please contact the authors for further information.